Definition of cosmetics:
FD &C act defines cosmetics by their intended use, as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced in to, or otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting, attractiveness, or altering the appearance.Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body, includes skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes,lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels,deodorants, hand sanitizer, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products
Cosmetics containing an active ingredient obtained from plant origin is known as Herbal cosmetics.
- To enhance the general appearance of face and other body parts and to minimize the skin defects to a considerable extent
- The botanical ingredients present influences biological functions of skin and provide nutrients necessary for the healthy hairs, skin, dentures etc.
- In general botanicals provide different vitamins, anti-oxidants, various oils, essential oils, dyes, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, terpenoids, proteins, and other bio active molecules to the skin, hairs, and other body parts.
Classification of Cosmetics :
A. Skin cosmetics
a. Vanishing cream
b. Cold cream
ii. Lip balm and lipsticks
a. Face powder
b. Body powder
c. Prickly heat powder
iv. Lotions & Liniments
a. Skin lotion
b. Astringent lotion
v. Face packs
vi. Deodorant & antiperspirant
vii. Bath preparation
B. Hair cosmetics
ii. Depilatories, Hair removers
iii. Hair lotions
iv. Eye lash preparations—eye brow pencils
v. Hair wave preparations
C. Tooth cosmetics
i. Mouth wash
b. Tooth powder
D. Nail preparation
i. Nail polishes
ii. Nail lacquers
iii. Lacquer removers
E. Shaving preparations
F. Foot preparations
The main function of this covering is to protect body, eliminate waste material & regulate body temperature.
Creams : – Are semi-solid emulsions that is mixtures of oil and water.
Uses of creams Ideal characteristic
a. Protect the skin Non toxic
b. Retention of moisture Easily spreads
c. Cleansing Remains stable
d. Emollient effects Not too hygroscopic
e. As barrier with sunscreens Easy to remove
Classification of Creams :
1. According to emulsion phase
Eg: Cold cream, Emollient cream
Eg: Shaving cream, foundation cream, Vanishing cream
2. According to functional aspect
- Cold & cleansing creams
- Night & Nourishing creams
- Vanishing & Foundation creams
- All –purpose cream
- Others : Anti-acne, anti-wrinkle cream
- Invented by Galen: Galen’s cold cream was based on beeswax and water, also containing olive oil and rose petals for softness and scent.
It is an emulsion of water and certain fats (W/O)
Normally following base are used:
Almond oil, white bees wax
Borax (used as emulsifier and anti-microbial),Rose water
Method of preparation:
1. Dissolve borax in hot rose water.
2. Melt various waxes together keeping the temp. about 70°C.
3. Mix both the oil & water phase at same temp. with constant stirring.
4. Mix without heat for 1 hrs & when cool (45-50°C), add perfume
For example: Nyle cold cream (Red apple extract)
Its an emulsion of Oil in Water (O/W Cream)
When applied to the skin leave an almost invisible layer on it.
Produce emollient and moisturizing effect.
1. Melt stearic acid & lanolin.
2. Mix water, glycerine, extract & triethanolamine & warm to same temp. as that of melted stearic acid and lanolin.
3. Mix both the melts together with continuous stirring.
4. Add preservative &perfume.
5. Mix them thoroughly in order to obtain a uniform product
Jojoba vanishing cream
Ingredients : Stearic acid, Glycerin, Lanolin, Triethanolamine, Natural jojoba extract, Preservative, Water, perfume.
It is non greasy &provides nourishment & protection to the skin.
Nourishing skin cream (Himalaya)
i. Aloe vera (Nourishes & moisturizes the skin)
ii. Indian Kino tree, Ashwaganda (Protect skin from pollution & dry weather)
iii. Gotu Kola (May increases the production of collagen)
Other Ingredients: Liquid paraffin, Glycerin,BHT, Sodium EDTA, phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben,etc.
Nourishes the skin all night with revitalizers, nutrients & moisturizers.
It provides moisture to the skin by preventing evaporation.
Example: Revitalizing night cream(Himalaya)
i. Pyrus malus (Crab Apple): Cooling, Soothing and Keratolytic
ii. Triticum sativum (Wheat): Preventing black heads.
iii. Citrus limon (Lemon): It protects the skin from oxidative damage.
iv. Lilium polyphyllum (White Lily): Astringent
v. Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato): Antioxidant
A great moisturizer for dry skin that helps heal, repair, and maintain soft, supple skin.
Increasing skin hydration (by reducing evaporation)
Example : Aloe moisturizing cream
ii. Coconut oil
iii. Vitamin E
iv. Chamomile extract
v. Aloe vera gel
Method of formulation:
1. Heat coconut oil & beeswax until wax melt.
2. Stir & cool.
3. Slowly add the aloe vera gel a drop at a time.
4. Continue stirring & when the mixture thickens,
5. Add the vitamin oil & chamomile extract.
It acts as a superficial disease that affects the hair follicles and oil secreting glands of the skin.
Example: Himalaya acne –n pimple cream
Lens culinaris(Lentil) Reduce inflammation
Silk cotton tree Astringent
Vitex negundo Anti-inflammatory
Sunscreen cream are those topical preparations which protect the skin by harmful sunlight either by scatter sunlight or to absorb erythemogenic radiations.
i. Aloe vera
ii. Fat-soluble walnut extract
iii. Bees wax
iv. Hydrogenated ricinus oil
It delays wrinkles and smoothes fine lines.
Regular use prevents oxidative skin damage.
Aloe vera Antibacterial & antifungal
Papaver rhoeas Emollient
Vitis vinifera Nourish the skin
Solanum lycopersicum Antioxidant
Santalum album Elleviate itching and inflammation.
It inhibits the formation of melanin.
It reduces pigmentation.
E.g. 1.Himalaya Fairness Cream
Rosa centifolia improves complexion
Citrus reticulata removes blemishes
Aloe vera moisturizes and softens skin.
E.g. 2.Fair & lovely fairness cream
Rubia cordifolia reduces freckles
Santalum album reduces irritation
Sympiocos racemosa lightens color